Does Post-Concussion Syndrome Commonly Occur in Children

In the highly regarded Neurology Textbook, “Principles of Neurology,” by Adams and Victor, tenth edition, it is stated post-concussion syndrome is virtually unknown in children. However, a careful search of the scientific neuropathology literature suggest otherwise.

In our latest Newsletter, “Post-Concussion Syndrome-Children” an in depth discussion of this issue is presented. You can also sign up here to receive our Forensic ScienceNewsletter by email.

Definition of Post-concussion syndrome (PCS)

A name given to symptoms that develop following a concussion, which persist for an extended time. Most concussions in children resolve in 7-10 days.

General Information

Most children and adolescent athletes return to their normal activities within two weeks. Those who develop post-concussion syndrome have symptoms, such as tiredness, headache, memory loss, dizziness, irritability, poor attention, depression, difficulty in concentration, sleep problems, and personality changes that last for at least one month. Continue reading Does Post-Concussion Syndrome Commonly Occur in Children

The Quanundrum of Post-Concussion Syndrome

X-Ray Concussion of the BrainAlthough there is much confusion in the literature regarding what is post-concussion syndrome, a picture is beginning to emerge, which provides clarity as to our understanding of its seemingly confusing presentation.

In our latest Newsletter, “Post-Concussion Syndrome-Adults,” we present a comprehensive analysis of this subject.  The following blog article is meant only to touch on some of the aspects of this complex subject.  You can also sign up here to receive our Forensic Science Newsletter by email.

Continue reading The Quanundrum of Post-Concussion Syndrome

What is Gunshot Residue?

gunshot residueWhat is gunshot residue, and how does it help investigators understand crime scenes?

Our most recent Newsletter “Gunshot Residue Analysis” provides a detailed analysis of the topic while the following blog article provides a cursory review of the topic.  You can also sign up here to receive our Forensic Science Newsletter by email.

Gunshot residue – often abbrevieated as GSR – is the material that is deposited on the hands or clothing of someone who has:

  • Discharged a firearm.
  • Was near a firearm as it was discharged.
  • Handled a recently discharged firearm.
  • Touched an object that was handled by a person who has discharged a firearm.

In addition, GSR may be present on an entrance or exit wound, or on materials that were targeted by a firearm. Continue reading What is Gunshot Residue?

Trichloroethylene and Pancreatic Cancer

Pancreatic cancerForensic Science Newsletter

Forensic Pathology

This Forensic Science Newsletter will be devoted to the development of pancreatic cancer following long term exposure to trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene and their stabilizers.  Pancreatic carcinoma is the fourth most common cause of death due to cancer and is second only to Glioblastoma (type of Brain cancer) in lethality.  The 5-year survival rate is less than 5%.

Trichloroethylene and Pancreatic Cancer

Forensic Science Newsletter July 2016: Concussions in Children & Adolescents

concussion in children in youth sportsNeuropathology

Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (Concussion) in Infants, Toddlers, Children and Adolescents

In the Forensic Science Newsletter of May 15, we discussed Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (Concussion) in adults.  In this issue of the Forensic Science Newsletter we are going to discuss mild TBI (concussion) in infants, toddlers, children and adolescents.

Continue reading Forensic Science Newsletter July 2016: Concussions in Children & Adolescents

The Safety of Newborn Infants who are Breast Fed by Mothers on Methadone Maintenance

Preterm baby resting on mother's breastsIn this Forensic Science Newsletter we will discuss the safety of newborn infants being breastfed by mothers who are on a methadone maintenance therapy program.  To further this understanding we will explore the chemistry of methadone, its’metabolism, genetic polymorphism and the clinical aspects of methadone maintenance programs.

Forensic Science Newsletter-June 1, 2016

Forensic Science Newsletter May 2016: Effects of Traumatic Brain Injury

Neuropathology Introduction

MRI Scan: Neuropathology of Traumatic Brain InjuryIn this issue of the Forensic Science Newsletter we will address the most recent scientific information regarding the acute effects of traumatic brain injury as represented by concussion in adults.

Concussion refers to an immediate, usually reversible episode of brain dysfunction following traumatic brain injury (TBI), typically, but not always, with sudden brief impairment of consciousness and loss of memory.  Concussion represents the mildest form of TBI.  TBI comprises a clinical spectrum that extends from mild concussion, in which consciousness is often retained, to severe diffuse traumatic axonal injury (TAI) causing an unresponsive wakefulness state (UWS), which was formally referred to as a vegetative state.  Patients with UWS have sleep wake cycles, intact cardiorespiratory function and primitive responses to stimuli but without evidence of inner or outer awareness present for at least one month.

Continue reading Forensic Science Newsletter May 2016: Effects of Traumatic Brain Injury

Dieulafoy Lesions: An Uncommon Cause of Sudden Massive Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage

Forensic Science Newsletter: April 15, 2016

In this issue of Forensic Science Newsletter we will discuss under the section of Forensic Pathology the Dieulafoy Lesions, an Uncommon Cause of Sudden Massive Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage.

Under the section of Neuropathology is a discussion of Invasive Intracranial Pressure Monitoring and its complications.

Forensic Science Newsletter April 2016

An Unusual Cause of Sudden Death in an Infant

Forensic Science Newsletter: March 15, 2016

In the January issue of the Journal of Forensic Science an article was published entitled “A Case of Sudden Infant Death Due to Incomplete Kawasaki Disease.”  The cause of death for this infant was acute myocardial infarction due to platelet aggregated emboli, soon after discharge from the hospital, where he had been treated for fever and suppuration at the Bacille de Calmette et Guerin (BCG) vaccination site.

Following a review of this article there are a number of key points which need to be understood in either Kawasaki Disease or Incomplete Kawasaki Disease.

Forensic Science Newsletter March 2016

Understanding the Metabolism of Codeine is Important for the Clinician and the Forensic Pathologist

Recently, an advisory committee to the FDA has recommended codeine be contraindicated for pain and cough management in children and adolescents due to concerns for respiratory depression and death.  This FDA warning was also extended to prescriptions of codeine to nursing mothers.

In Europe, codeine is contraindicated in children under age 12 for cold or cough, and the European Medicines Agency recommends against using the drug in those age 12 to 18 years-of-age who have breathing difficulties.

This article explores the foundation for the necessity of this recommendation.

Understanding the metabolism of codeine is important for the clinican and forensic pathologist

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